1944 Soviet Extraordinary State Commission Report Fragment on Rohatyn

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The first page of the manuscript section of the report fragment.
Source: Yad Vashem via the RDRG.

A parallel article on this website fully translates and summarizes a lengthy report by the Soviet Extraordinary State Commission on crimes perpetrated in the Rohatyn district during the German occupation of World War II (1941~1944). The report was loosely assembled from more than 80 handwritten and typed pages of interviews and testimonies together with three tables of named victims, including those killed and others abducted into slavery in Germany; brief tabular and text summaries of the major crimes plus a legal declaration precede the body of the report. See the parallel article for background to the Soviet Extraordinary State Commission and its work in the Rohatyn district.

Despite the length of that report, only some of the villages in the Rohatyn district are covered, meaning victims in other villages were unnamed and uncounted. More surprisingly, while crimes committed in the city of Rohatyn are attested by five Jewish and two Ukrainian witnesses, and the victim accounting table in the report shows more than 99% of shooting deaths in the district occurred within the city, no victims in the city are listed among the more than one thousand names which appear in the district report.

A partial explanation lies in a smaller and incomplete report fragment covering Rohatyn city plus the nearby villages of Babintsi and Ruda, preserved under a separate record number in the Soviet and then Russian archive systems. This article translates and summarizes that fragment as a complement to the district report.

See the Sources section at the bottom of this page and at the bottom of the parallel article on the district report for footnotes and general references to the sections below; footnote numbering is consistent between these two articles.

The Rohatyn City Report Fragment

The first page of the typed section of the report fragment. Source: Yad Vashem via the RDRG.

The report fragment translated here is a copy of State Archive of the Russian Federation (GARF) record R-7021-73-65 acquired in 2009 from the Yad Vashem documents archive by Dr. Alex Feller, founder of the Rohatyn District Research Group (RDRG), an online family history organization. The full record includes only 16 microfilm images, of which two are reel section markers (not part of the report), one is a cover, and 13 are images of the report’s paper sheets. The report is in two parts: eight sheets list victims in the city of Rohatyn only and categorize their damages in a sparsely-filled table; another five sheets are typed, transcribing the Rohatyn names from the handwritten table together with the total monetary value of their damages, and adding similar names lists and damage totals for victims in Babintsi (an incorporated village just east of the Rohatyn city center) and the separate village of Ruda about 6km north of Rohatyn. No handwritten damages tables exist for Babintsi or Ruda.

The report fragment includes no testimonies, no introduction or explanation, and no certification; only names and damages are listed and counted. “Damage” in the Soviet administrative language of the era includes both personal damage (death) and property damage, e.g. theft or destruction of buildings, livestock, farm fields, orchards, vineyards, etc. Although the typewritten lists count only the total values of property damage and are silent on the fates of the named victims, the handwritten list for Rohatyn also counts for each victim the number of their family members and the family’s fate, where known/reported. See the table below, which merges the key information from the two sets of report data, and which may be sorted and searched for names and selected numbers.

The handwritten sheets are undated, but all of the typed table records which transcribe the handwritten forms are dated either “0” or 13 December 1944, several weeks earlier than most of the testimonies in the district report. It may be that this time gap in the administrative process led to the separation of the two parts of the investigation reports in the Rohatyn area.

Related Testimonies, Memoirs, and Other Historical Information

As noted throughout the parallel article on the Soviet report for the Rohatyn district, multiple postwar memoirs, video and audio testimonies, and formal and informal histories have documented the deadly events in the city of Rohatyn during the German occupation [14]. Those accounts plus the Soviet district report testimonies in the parallel article directly relate to the report fragment published here.

A lasting tragedy of the Holocaust in Rohatyn is that the names of so few of the victims are known; as noted in the next section, this Soviet report fragment helps but still falls far short of a full accounting of victims for historical and memorial purposes. Combining this Soviet list with lists from Yad Vashem and other sources still leaves the vast majority of victims in Rohatyn unnamed, and probably lost to time.

Researching and Analyzing the Report

The cast of King Lear

Theater production of “King Lear” in Rohatyn, 1920. Among the players are members of families named in the Soviet report, including one named individual: Tonia Liebling, second from left in the middle row, listed in the report as head of a household of 28 members, all killed. Source: Jack Faust Photo Collection. Image provided by Alex Feller.

As noted above, the GARF record R-7021-73-65 was acquired in 2009 by Dr. Alex Feller for the RDRG from the Yad Vashem documents archive [12]. Founded originally as an online Jewish descendants’ group focused on Rohatyn, the RDRG’s initial research effort was on the handwritten table of data for the city of Rohatyn. A first translation from that original Russian data to an English-language spreadsheet was made for the RDRG by Yefim Kogan, leader of the Bessarabia Special Interest Group at JewishGen and a native Russian speaker. The report images and the translated spreadsheet were then placed with related materials on the RDRG website for group study in a section on Victims of the Holocaust [13] and another on Holocaust Resources [24].

Ten years later, as part of the research by Rohatyn Jewish Heritage (RJH) on GARF record R-7021-73-13 [10] [11] for the parallel article on the district report on this website, the report fragment R-7021-73-65 was reviewed again in its entirety. Recognizing this fragment as complementary to the district report, the key data was analyzed again, corrected (where possible), and newly translated by Vasyl Yuzyshyn and Jay Osborn for presentation here. In order to expand the victims table to include the villages of Babintsi and Ruda, the overlapping data in the handwritten and typewritten tables were merged into the single table seen below. For victims in the city of Rohatyn, financial losses tied to habitable buildings are shown, as are losses in a category labeled “other (types of) damage”; for Jews and others who held no farm land, this appears to account for business inventory, furniture, and other valuable goods lost during the occupation. Not all columns of the handwritten table for the city of Rohatyn were retained in this presentation; values in sparsely-filled columns accounting for loss of livestock as well as agricultural fields, inventory, equipment, and provisions were combined with the “other” column. The full table for the city of Rohatyn is accessible in both the original Soviet sheet images and in an English-language spreadsheet version on the RDRG website as noted, if the agricultural damage amounts are of interest for further research.

The table column describing the “fate of the family” is difficult to interpret. While entries such as “moved away”, “shot”, and “all killed” are clear, families whose fate is understandably listed as “unknown” may or may not have survived, many fates are simply left blank, and one listed fate is illegible. The fate noted as “Rohatyn” appears to suggest that some or all of the family returned to the city after the German army and other officials retreated from the Rohatyn area in 1944; only 41 people were listed in this category at the time of the Soviet investigation, of which at most 4 were possibly Jewish.

Counting the Victims

Hebrew school kindergarten class in Rohatyn, 1937

A Hebrew school kindergarten class in Rohatyn in 1937. Of the 24 children shown here with their teacher, there were no known survivors of the war. In the Soviet report, no children are named, and many are not even counted, as the family surnames of some of the children shown here do not appear.
Source: Rohatyn Yizkor Book, p.187.

Analysis shows that as a record of what happened in and around Rohatyn during the Holocaust, and to whom, this report fragment is defective in many ways. Probably the most significant defect is the very incomplete listing of the names and even the numbers of victims, in particular the thousands of Jewish ones. The 167 named Rohatyn victims are heads of household, many with several or dozens of unnamed family members sharing a similar fate, so a single name stands in for all of the individuals in sometimes very extended families. There is an even larger issue with the numbers of victims. On one hand, comparing the names of victims in villages in the district report with the summary numbers at the beginning of that report, reasonably close agreement is seen except where village names are omitted. On the other hand, the district report tallies the murdered in Rohatyn at 9800 people, while the report fragment analyzed here totals only 1461 to 1525 killed depending on how one counts families whose fates are listed either as “unknown” or illegibly; fates left blank are assumed to mean survived (only one likely Jewish name has a blank fate in the table).

One can speculate that most individual Jewish people of Rohatyn were simply not known well or at all to survivors of the occupation, especially to Ukrainians but even to the scant Jews and Poles who returned to and then remained in Rohatyn through the time of the Soviet investigation. Significantly, the listed names in the report fragment very likely omit all or nearly all Jews who came to Soviet-occupied Rohatyn and its district in the first years of the war (1939~1941) as refugees from German-occupied western Poland; their names would be even less well known to residents of the region due to their brief time in place and their transient status. Jews forcibly moved from other regional communities (including Knihynicze, Bursztyn, Bołszowce, and Bukaczowce) [1] to the Rohatyn ghetto beginning in late 1941 and substantially following the first major killing event in 1942 would be completely unknown to gentile Rohatyn residents and not well known to Jewish survivors of the ghetto liquidation.

Naming and Identifying the Victims

Two facing pages from a 1925 Jewish civil marriage register for Rohatyn. On the right page, the bride is likely the “Matilda” Fruchter listed in the report as as a victim killed along with 16 other family members. Other family names appearing both on these register pages and in the Soviet report include Cytron/Citron, Horn, Horowitz, and Spiegel. Source: JRI-Poland.

Limited familiarity with the victims and their cultures also led witnesses and officials to make artless omissions and errors in reporting, recording, and transcribing names, which further obscures the full and accurate history of the destruction. The table below shows numerous examples of families recorded only by surname, and a few recorded only by first names. There are also many examples in which a listed name in Russian is phonetically similar to a known local Jewish, Ukrainian, or Polish name, but something is flawed: a missing syllable, erroneous or transposed consonants, or altered vowels. Mistakes were compounded in the Soviet reporting process, as the original handwritten tables apparently proved difficult to read even for the later Soviet typist, and new errors and omissions were introduced in that stage of the record. Later reviewer/translators including both the RDRG and RJH were unable to resolve all legibility issues and likely introduced a few new errors as well.

In the table below of victims from Rohatyn, Babintsi, and Ruda, where a family surname matches one found in the martyrs list in the Rohatyn Yizkor Book (1962) [15] (and the edited and expanded version published as Remembering Rohatyn (2015 and 2019) [16]), an “M” is marked in the table. If a surname appears elsewhere in the Yizkor Book text sections or in another of the published histories of Jewish life in Rohatyn, an “H” is marked in the table. In a separate column in the table, if a family surname is among the names being actively researched by descendants in the Rohatyn District Research Group (RDRG), a “G” is marked; this column includes Jewish, Polish, and Ukrainian names. Where a question mark (?) is added to M, H, or G, it means the listed name is close to a known historical Rohatyn family surname, but we were unsure if the match should be exact.

The wooden church and belfry in the village of Ruda,
home to 37 victim families named in the report. Photo © RJH.

Re-translation of the names in both lists of the Soviet report fragment gave an opportunity to reinterpret the identity of some family names. Russian spellings of Ukrainian surnames and first names were corrected by a Ukrainian native speaker who is fluent in Russian, and matched to known names in the Rohatyn region in many cases. Likely Jewish names were transliterated and then phonetically matched to common Jewish naming patterns as they are written by Jewish descendants in the diaspora, e.g. following German- or Polish-language spelling models modified for English pronunciation. In the same process, names which appeared to be misspelled or otherwise mistaken in either the handwritten or typed Russian lists were corrected, if a close match to known Rohatyn families could be discerned. We thank Dr. Alex Feller for his careful review and adjustment of many of the victims’ names tabulated here, based on his extensive knowledge of Rohatyn Jewish names.

For example, the name variously written in the Russian tables as Байдаер (which transliterates as Baidaer), Байдаф (Baidaf), and Бедер (Beder) were changed to the known Rohatyn Jewish family name Bader in the table below. In smaller changes, the name Фрухтер (Frukhter) was adjusted here to the common descendants’ spelling FruchterВидеркар (Viderkar) was changed to Widerker/Wiederkehr, and Айзен (Aizen), which appears twice, to Eisen. All of these names appear in the Yizkor Book martyrs list.

Three examples of the Jewish surname Bader in Russian, from the Soviet handwritten table (left) and the subsequent typed version (right).

Some more significant changes were made here with confidence based on phonetics and known Rohatyn Jewish names. For example, the surname and first name Туртель Тауп (Turtel Taup) was changed to the surname only of Turteltaub, and the surname, first name, and patronymic recorded as Блюмен Райх Герш (Bliumen Raikh Gersh) was changed to Blumenreich Hersh.

However, names which appeared close to Rohatyn family surnames or other common Jewish names, but which would have sounded different in the original Soviet recording process, were left unmodified; an example is Алергард (Alergard), which looks very similar to the known Rohatyn Jewish name Allerhand, but because the sound is different and the r is clearly written in both versions of the Soviet table, we list the name here as Alerhard (with a ? notation to highlight its similarity to a known name).

Counting the Financial Damage

Financial losses to families could come from theft (e.g. when Jewish families
were forced to move into the Rohatyn ghetto) or from destruction of buildings
(as seen in this 1944 Luftwaffe aerial photo of the former ghetto area).
Image source: Alex Feller for the RDRG, via NARA.

The Soviet investigators were particularly interested in accounting for damage to production and the regional economy; material losses of houses, service buildings, farm and orchard plots, livestock, crops, equipment, merchant and farm inventory, and other assets were separately converted to ruble equivalents and totaled, with the losses assigned to named heads of households. Although occasionally higher, in most cases the damage amounts determined for destroyed buildings were calculated at just under 70 Soviet rubles (SUR) per cubic meter (m^3) of building volume; this was roughly equivalent to US$13/m^3 at then-official exchange rates [23]. Thus the destroyed Barban family building of 960m^3 (probably a large two-story house and shop, based on size) was valued at SUR66,921 or US$12,628 in 1944.

For both Jews and Ukrainians in Rohatyn, often the losses in the “other” category were significantly higher than the listed value of the family home(s), and typically the “other” value was a very round number (e.g. 25,000 or 150,000); it is not clear why. Also, livestock was especially valuable in the Soviet system: a lost cow was valued at 15,000 rubles, comparable to a small house of 25 square meters. Unfortunately, half of the pages of the handwritten table entirely or almost entirely omit any entries in the “other” column, without explanation. Besides omissions, the tables also include errors in recording and in addition, making a full analysis of the financial losses difficult or impossible.

Table: Damage and Thefts by the German Occupiers in Babintsi, Rohatyn, and Ruda

Note: The beginning of this section translates notations written on the cover of the report fragment plus the heading pre-printed on the forms used for the handwritten table covering the city of Rohatyn only. The form heading was not completed except for noting the location as Rohatyn, i.e. no dates or any names of commissioners were written. See the introductory sections above for a description of the names analysis and translation process plus other interpretations of the data presented here. The symbols <***> mean the table text was illegible.

File No. 65
Stanislav oblast, Rohatyn district
Selection in natural order
Summary list
Register from 1 to 287
Declarations from 1 to 287
Acts from the inventory from 1 to 1356
On 383 sheets

Dated _____ 1944. We, the undersigned, the chairman of the commission ______ and members of the commission 1. _____ and 2. _____
made this declaration: a list of the depredation and thefts by the German-fascist occupiers which caused harm to the citizens listed below
in the
Stanislav region, Rohatyn district, Rohatyn city.

No.AddressHead of Household:
Surname, Name, Patronymic
M/HG# in
Fate of Family#
1BabintsiOlabei Mykhailo38019
2BabintsiNahirniak Mykhailo16491
3BabintsiTsap Mykhailo14709
4BabintsiHrushetskyi Mykhailo64856
5BabintsiKonopada Kateryna21979
6BabintsiLialka Mykhailo266057
7BabintsiMahniuk? Dmytro57254
8BabintsiVohnysta Mykhailo438688
9BabintsiDrib Mariia5019
10BabintsiVorobets Mykhailo4800
11BabintsiDrib Mariia Dmytrivna16356
12BabintsiMohorskyi Mykhailo15300
13BabintsiPerih Doska Hryhorivna15638
14BabintsiNahirniak Semen6800
15BabintsiPokripka Mariia37039
16BabintsiSlyvka Vasyl5446
17BabintsiDrib Anna5228
18BabintsiPaianivska Mariia37760
19BabintsiIvantsiv Mykhailo Mykhailovych5280
20BabintsiIvankiv Oleksa49000
21BabintsiBilousiv Kateryna4200
22BabintsiYurkiv Anna13802
23BabintsiDzeria Hrynko36657
24BabintsiBandyna Doska11400
25BabintsiLialka Dmytro15180
26BabintsiNahirniak Mariia56460
27BabintsiTyhkyi Anton24857
28BabintsiVorobets Kateryna23320
29BabintsiVerbliana Doska4200
30BabintsiMosora Mariia9600
31BabintsiNahirniak Mykhailo161405
32BabintsiSlyvka Teodor185471
33BabintsiDoroshenko Vasyl57554
34BabintsiHilei Anna Mykhailivna18829
35BabintsiBahinska Pavlina37734
36BabintsiMatushevska Yuliia3486
37BabintsiKotovych Yuzef99771
38BabintsiLeskyi Mykhailo3399
39BabintsiPyrih Mariia15415
40BabintsiMarii Mariia107881
41BabintsiVerbiana Mariia10931
42BabintsiKhrebet Mariia15385
43BabintsiOkrepka Mykola154143
44BabintsiVorobets Anna25739
45BabintsiPokripka Dmytro101386
46RohatynKrokopynskyi Volodomyr4left area83658365
47RohatynVlodyk Kazymyr5Rohatyn101642101642
48RohatynKavka Yevheniia6<***>64196419
50RohatynKirishider Leonid24shot244879748797
51RohatynBader (Baidaf?)MG6shot62635026350
55RohatynWiderker (Wiederkehr)M6shot666926692
64RohatynMosora Anton4Rohatyn41824182
65RohatynDudkevych Anna4unknown2230722307
66RohatynShynkyrik32 killed21254712547
69RohatynOkrepka Filomena2killed241824182
74RohatynKról Karl5unknown1505715057
76RohatynKoval Karl6in 1940 in Siberia3346033460
81RohatynWeiner Hersch4shot434853485
83RohatynDurst AlterM20shot201561515615
85RohatynLend (Mend?)13shot132049420494
88RohatynBlian Moses6shot634853485
90RohatynFiegelbaum Yosef12shot1241824182
91RohatynKönigsberg? Sh.16all killed1662739100000162739
92RohatynAinstok Samuel6all killed641833000034183
93RohatynMessing YudaMG9all killed983655000058365
94RohatynBankerfisher26all killed26133843156275290118
95RohatynShates Baruch9all killed980831500023083
96RohatynBader MosesMG20all killed2031369150000181369
97RohatynAinstok Chaim15killed15100382500035038
98RohatynGartin ZerikMG9all killed929278100000129278
99RohatynKisel MosherM?15all killed15250955000075095
100RohatynBader SamuelMG9all killed9184835000068483
101RohatynRosenberg PinkasMG9all killed9101082500035108
102RohatynBarbanHG1211 killed1166921100000166921
103RohatynSzkolnik LevinMG1312 killed124461475000119614
104RohatynBrotleib Moses98 killed8278845000077884
105RohatynFliang Ira5all killed555772500030577
106RohatynZalis MosesM?10killed10104563000040456
107RohatynKarten LeonMG9all killed9522832500077283
108RohatynGalt WolfM?G?6all killed634855150000184855
109RohatynWeiler MosesM20all killed2066922100000166922
110RohatynRosenberg BankasMG4all killed441832500029183
111RohatynKinsberg Schuler7all killed75855650000108556
112RohatynLandau YakovMG12all killed1250191100000150191
113RohatynHaller HershMG13all killed13627393000092739
114RohatynScharer IzydorMG?12all killed12418263000071826
115RohatynLandau SamuelMG6all killed6278844000067884
116RohatynScharer SamuelMG?9all killed9278842500052884
117RohatynFruchter MatildaMG17all killed17118522000031852
118RohatynToperG?13all killed137319650000123196
119RohatynReiss HershM18all killed1865627300000365627
120RohatynFisher YosefM12all killed1241926150000191926
121RohatynRosenstein KolmanMG15all killed1551283100000151283
122RohatynGlotzer OzdinMG153 remain1233461100000133461
123RohatynKerener Hersh13all killed1333461100000133461
124RohatynBlech TsiraMG53 killed3334612500058461
125RohatynBraunstein EstherM?8all killed850191100000150191
126RohatynMarena Tok9all killed941826100000141826
127RohatynHorn EnosMG30all killed30153362100000253362
128RohatynLiebling ToniaMG28all killed28101920150000251920
129RohatynAndermann DavidG30all killed30428401000052840
130RohatynGotlieb LeibMG85all killed8514000250000264000
131RohatynHochberg Feivish16all killed1627884100000127884
132RohatynHrushetskyi13left area126001000022600
133RohatynMarkevych18left area14140100000114140
134RohatynRevasG?19left area141401000024140
135RohatynLibinesh Herzl12all killed12191101000029110
136RohatynGnap Chaim15all killed15151201000025120
142RohatynItek Gang21 shot110451045
145RohatynScheiner NachmanM?6shot641824182
147RohatynSzkolnik NatanMG7shot734853485
154RohatynHasvich Mykhailo4Rohatyn7061370613
155RohatynZitron (Citron)H?15shot151673016730
158RohatynAinstok Yakub9shot91524715247
160RohatynBabiuk Roman4unknown5353753537
161RohatynMalenka Teodora2Rohatyn55765576
165RohatynHorowitz LeibMG3shot366926692
167RohatynKinik Leib5shot521362136
170RohatynAltbauer HenrykMGRohatyn33463346
172RohatynPerikh AntonRohatyn245375600080537
173RohatynPerikh MariiaRohatyn66926692
174RohatynBardal MykolaRohatyn42524252
175RohatynPerikh MykhailoRohatyn1673016730
176RohatynBoikevych YosypRohatyn78071000017807
178RohatynHrytsai MyronGRohatyn455201000055520
179RohatynKagelberg ShamaM?G?18all killed1828233200000228233
180RohatynBauer Leon19all killed19197601000029760
181RohatynAlerhard WolfM?10all killed10139421000023942
182RohatynFaust NaftaliaMG20all killed20223072000042307
183RohatynKronberg ChaimH?20all killed20188222000038822
184RohatynKaufman MichaelM12all killed1288931000018899
185RohatynTurteltaubH40all killed406971050000119710
186RohatynTenenbaum T.MG12all killed1225514100000125514
187RohatynShklerling Falik20all killed20197602000039760
188RohatynBikel Leizer18all killed1841831000014183
189RohatynBrik RachelaM3all killed3292782000049278
190RohatynTannenbaum MarkusMG15all killed15160332000036033
191RohatynFrenkel Meir24all killed24627392000082739
192RohatynBlumenreich HershMG20all killed208065500013065
193RohatynAkselrad MaxM30all killed30418261000051826
194RohatynKasten MosesMG8all killed8280871000038087
195RohatynYarosh AbaM?45all killed4511492151000001249215
196RohatynKatz HershMG12all killed12280873000058087
197RohatynWalker ItzhakM24all killed249411100000109411
198RohatynHauzenbald Hersh20all killed20209133000050913
199RohatynEisen MosesMG20all killed20243992500049399
200RohatynKornM?G?12all killed1232461150000182461
201RohatynBratspis HershMG18all killed1894112000029411
202RohatynSzkolnik LeviMG18all killed1850191000015019
203RohatynWinsher9all killed950192500030019
204RohatynAchtH63 alive310735100000110735
205RohatynHahrin Pylyp224184864071058
206RohatynHorodenskyi Petro2241888000110418
207RohatynSybchak Anastasiia224182932051738
208RohatynKrupka Anna224185076073178
209RohatynKachala Yulia3092988280119209
210RohatynStakiva Yulia224182500047418
211RohatynHorotskyi Yosyp2674580400107145
212RudaHorodenka Kateryna Hr.31896
213RudaKroviana Anna Al.83162
214RudaFeduniak Teodor N.121023
215RudaMakoido Olha34996
216RudaShymberko Mariia25662
217RudaTsapovskyi Vintsentyi69388
218RudaZlychyniuk Zofiia53310
219RudaPetriv Anna Teod.50500
220RudaStakhura Anna Iv.34000
221RudaDanylyshyn Ivan Z.
222RudaStakhura Kateryna64133
223RudaDoroshenko Teodor Hr.133188
224RudaHuchak Stakh F.52140
225RudaOstaniv Ivan Mykh.40345
226RudaKyzymka Mykhailo47679
227RudaVehil Anna Mykhailivna60724
228RudaOkrepka Anna V.99411
229RudaKontsiuk Mykhailo T.136707
230RudaStatskiv Mykhailo M.198130
231RudaKonchuk Mykhailo Vas.56459
232RudaPavliuk Volodymyr44499
233RudaTsymytsytyi Vasyl91174
234RudaMosai Ivan And.67125
235RudaHorodetskyi Yosyp77248
236RudaVereten Mykola P.126676
237RudaFedunyk Vasyl N.63216
238RudaHrymbalystyi Yulii82916
239RudaDoroshenko Ivan In.96916
240RudaNachalo Dozalii382560
241RudaVasylkiv Teodor73712
242RudaHoi Teodor136920
243RudaOstapiv Ahafiia48725
244RudaKorda Ivan Vas.46893
245RudaKorda Vasyl63036
246RudaKorda Ivan Il.52725
247RudaYurkiv Anna M.87685
248RudaPakirko Hryhorii66408


[1] See Timeline: The Shoah in Rohatyn; this website.

[2] Extraordinary State Commission; Wikipedia.

[3] The Holocaust in Eastern Europe: At the Epicenter of the Final Solution; Waitman Wade Beorn, Bloomsbury, 2018, p.76.

[4] FALQs: Soviet Investigation of Nazi War Crimes; Peter Roudik, Library of Congress blog In Custodia Legis, 2015.

[5] Nuremburg trials: Soviet prosecution; Wikipedia.

[6] Extraordinary crimes in Ukraine: an examination of evidence collection by the Extraordinary State Commission of the U.S.S.R., 1942-1946; Marian R. Sanders, Ph.D. thesis, Ohio University, 1995, p.73.

[7] Katyn massacre: Soviet actions, Wikipedia.

[8] Report by a special Soviet commission, 24 January 1944, concerning the shooting of Polish officer prisoners of war in the forest of Katyn (original report text); part of: Katyn Forest Massacre, James von Geldern, Seventeen Moments in Soviet History, Macalester College and Michigan State University, undated.

[9] The Katyn lie: Its rise and duration; Institute of National Remembrance – Commission for the Prosecution of Crimes against the Polish Nation, 2020.

[10] Extraordinary State Commission to Investigate German-Fascist Crimes Committed on Soviet Territory from the USSR; USHMM collection RG-22.002M, accession 1995.A.1265, and finding aid; Reel 11, section 13; from 1995.

[11] Documentation of the Soviet Extraordinary State Commission, regarding the murder of Jews in the Rohatyn district by the Germans and their assistants during 1941-1944; Yad Vashem document collection Item 13224740, file number JM/17303, undated.

[12] List of survivors and perished from Rogatin, prepared by the Soviet Extraordinary State Commission, in 12/1944: includes itemization of property damage; Yad Vashem document collection Item 6231933, file number JM/21840, undated.

[13] Victims of the Holocaust; Rohatyn District Research Group; tabulated personal and property damage in the city of Rohatyn, transcription and translation of scanned images of GARF R-7021-73-65, undated.

[14] See Memoirs of Jewish Life in Rohatyn; this website.

[15] See The Yizkor Book for Rohatyn: Kehilat Rohatyn v’hasviva; this website.

[16] See Donia Gold Shwarzstein’s “Remembering Rohatyn and Its Environs”; this website.

[17] Amber Nickell; Fort Hays State University faculty profile, undated.

[18] Yahad – In Unum; website, undated.

[19] NKVD; Wikipedia.

[20] See Rohatyn’s Shoah Killing Sites and Mass Graves; this website.

[21] See About Rohatyn Jewish Heritage; this website.

[22] Reconstructing Lives: Two University Applicants from Rohatyn; Alexander Feller; The Galitzianer; December 2021, p.23~28.

[23] Soviet ruble: Exchange rates; Wikipedia.

[24] Holocaust Resources; Rohatyn District Research Group; lists of and links to numerous online and offline records and other resources produced by the Soviet Extraordinary State Commission, Yad Vashem, the USHMM, Arolsen Archives, and other institutions.